The rest of this surah waxes sermonically about battle and the spoils of war.  I haven’t found a good overall point, so I offer these select verses as some that stood out in context: 

If you had an appointment to fight, you would have failed to keep it [but the battle took place] so that God might bring about something already ordained. (8:42)

This is a good reminder that plan as we might, there are divine plans that outweigh our own.  Ultimately, we are not in control. 

Remember when God made you [Prophet] see them [opponents] in your sleep as few: if He had shown them to you as many, you would certainly have lost heart and argued about it, but God saved you. (8:43)

What a novel thought!  God might even change the perception of a situation to ensure his plan is done.  Interesting idea! 

Believers, when you meet a force in battle, stand firm and keep God firmly in mind, so that you may prosper. (8:45)

That is such good advice!  Challenges do seem easier to tackle when God is firmly in mind.  Of course, keeping God there when staring at some death-dealing force is hard! 

Do not quarrel with one another, or you may lose heart and your spirit may desert you. (8:46)

How true!  A united force can stand against innumerable opponents, but as soon we start to fight with ourselves the battle is half over. 

Satan made their [the boastful] foul deeds seem fair to them, and said, “No one will conquer you today, for I will be right beside you,” but when the armies came within sight of one another he turned on his heels, saying, “This is where I leave you: I see what you do not, and I fear God: God is severe in His punishment.” (8:48)

I find this ayah so ironic.  Satan is the master of lies, but he can also see and tell the truth like no other!  Satan knows his schemes are doomed, and he will be the first to extricate himself from a sticky situation.

Whatever you give in God’s cause will be repaid to you in full, and you will not be wronged. (8:60)

That kind of makes arguing over the spoils of battle a bit superfluous, doesn’t it?

Prophet, urge the believers to fight: if there are twenty of you who are steadfast, they will overcome two hundred, and a hundred of you, if steadfast, will overcome a thousand of the disbelievers, for they are people who do not understand. (8:65)

How do you factor in divine help to strategic planning?  When God is involved, much more is possible than we “ask or imagine.”

You [people] desire the transient goods of this world, but God desires the Hereafter [for you]. (8:67)

So no wonder they fought over the spoils!

Instead, be content:

So enjoy in a good and lawful manner the things you have gained in war and be mindful of God. (8:69)